What is the goal of political philosophy? A common question that arises when students or others are looking for political philosophy information is: Is it primarily to achieve happiness? If so, what is the goal of Liberal or Conservative political philosophy? In contrast, Socialist political philosophy focuses on the goal of maximizing wealth. However, this question is not without controversy. Socialist political philosophy differs from conservative political philosophy in several ways.
Politics as a pursuit of happiness
The article argues that, in a democracy, citizens use their subjective well-being as an evaluative criterion for government action and punish the government for failing to meet their needs. According to this interpretation, governments should strive to provide essential conditions for happiness, while at the same time accommodating modern desires. Among the leading proponents of this interpretation are Garry Wills, Scott Gerber, and Richard K. Matthews.
While political philosophy has been dominated by utilitarian ideas for centuries, the idea of pursuit of happiness is still a fundamental concern of modern thought. It is so deeply embedded in American political thought that it is written into the Declaration of Independence. However, the liberal political tradition views collective happiness as an essentially utopian goal and pushes it to the private sphere. This view, however, is increasingly relegated to the fringes of American politics.
Thomas Jefferson, who endorsed the concept of pursuing happiness, argued that this goal was an inalienable right. For Jefferson, the pursuit of happiness encompassed the right to own property, but went beyond that. In the nineteenth century, the pursuit of happiness became a broader idea than the right to own property. Jefferson believed that happiness was a fundamental part of the human constitution, and the right to own property was an extension of that.
The Declaration of Independence guarantees the well-being of future generations, a principle that is affirmed in the Bible. Jefferson, like many Christians, embraced the principles of concern for other people’s happiness, claiming that “humans are created in God’s image.” Jésus, a moral teacher, taught his disciples to love their neighbors and sacrifice themselves for them. This is the basis of our nation’s foundational document.
Conservatives’ view of human nature
Historically, Conservatives have placed an emphasis on law and authority and have argued that people’s natural desires cannot be satisfied. They have long held that human nature is pessimistic and cannot be transformed to lead to ethical behavior. Some of these conservatives reject any religious basis for their philosophy, but these views are still prevalent today. In this article, we’ll look at some of the ways in which conservatives view human nature, as well as how these ideas have influenced their politics.
The Conservatives’ view of human nature as the aim of political philosophy is based on the view that human society is inherently unequal. They argue that arbitrary interference in social development would be metaphorically fatal for society. The mind of one man is inadequate to comprehend the complex nature of human society. That’s why they advocate for the creation of a hierarchy based on wealth and authority.
The conservative approach to politics has many implications for the future of our societies. First, conservatism believes that the individual has the right to acquire property and to keep it. Property not only gives the individual an opportunity to be independent, it also relieves the individual from dependence on the state. In addition, it promotes initiative and replenishes social elites. Second, conservatism sees inheritance as a fundamental value that connects individuals to their past and society’s future. This underpins order and continuity in society.
Moreover, conservatism is not in direct opposition to democracy. Although the conservatives advocate the freedom of the individual and the rule of law, they also argue that politics is a necessary evil and that politicians can do little good. It’s important to note that this approach does have practical implications, especially in today’s world. So, in summary, conservatives’ view of human nature as the goal of political philosophy is a good starting point to explore.
Liberals’ view of government
The liberals’ view of government is that it should be based on the consent of the governed. They believe that government bureaucracies are inefficient and corrupt, and that private sector efforts can yield better results. They also believe that government agents should be held accountable to the people who elect them. The state should represent all people’s interests, not just its own. In addition, liberals view the state as a neutral referee between competing groups and interests. As such, the state should be kept under tight restraint and can be dismissed for breaching its contract.
Modern liberals would not support differential voting patterns based on educational level or property ownership. They are, however, in favour of devolution of power. This means that they support a liberal-oriented government model. Despite these differences, however, liberals have similar beliefs. And this philosophy is rooted in their conception of human rights. The principle behind these rights is that human reason and energy are best stimulated when they are free. This theory is called natural law.
John Locke articulated the idea of a social contract in Two Treatises on Government (1690). The social contract idea argues that the authority of the state comes from the consent of the governed, and citizens have the right to rebel against the state if it violates their rights. In addition, in Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke articulated the liberal value of religious toleration. This principle has been at the core of liberal thinking since the sixteenth century.
The late nineteenth century presented a major challenge to classical liberalism. Poverty, disease, and ignorance were a brutal fact of life for most people. In addition, the Irish Famine was partly due to laissez-faire economic doctrines. Consequently, liberal philosophers and practical politicians began to rethink the role of government. Eventually, liberals forged their own political and philosophical faction called the ‘Social Darwinian’ party, which opposed the conservative ‘Stanford’ party.
Socialists’ view of capitalism
Many socialists argue that the current state of capitalism is undemocratic, insular, and ultimately unjust. Economic inequality is rampant, and the rich enjoy a distinct advantage over the rest of society. Capitalism allows them to buy political influence through campaign donations and lobbying, and to even draft legislation. They can even own media and manipulate public opinion by threatening to leave the country in response to policies they don’t like.
The economic system is a major concern for socialists, who point out that it is inefficient and wasteful. They also note that capitalism often underproduces goods that society needs but is profitable. As a result, many resources are wasted on luxuries that the rich are unlikely to need. For example, many antibiotics are underproduced and are not as profitable as other lifestyle drugs. Socialists claim that capitalism encourages greed and concentration of wealth.
In contrast, socialists argue that capitalists exploit the labor of all workers. Workers are compensated through socialism because they own the means of production. Capitalism allows a small segment of the population to live on their investment income and reduces the labor time of the majority. Moreover, socialists argue that many workers are misdirected by capitalism, since many work for unproductive purposes. There are legions of financial workers, marketers, lawyers, and advertisers who perform no productive function. These workers would only work because they are paid, rather than developing their capacities and benefiting comrades.
Socialism rejects capitalism as the ultimate form of government. Socialism is based on the idea that every citizen should have a voice in the economy. The people should have equal voting rights. However, equality does not mean that all citizens will have equal power. Often, wealthy people have greater influence in politics, while the poor have far less influence. Ultimately, socialism aims to empower individuals to take back control of their lives.
Alternative political theories
The major political theories in the history of political thought have evoked debate on a wide range of topics, including law, economics, freedom, gender, nationality, violence, war, sacrifice, and justice. These theories have also posed grander visions of political realms and criticised existing institutions on a local, national, and global level. Many people are drawn to these alternative political theories for the same reasons, as they seek a more egalitarian society.
Socialism claims that the free market system must be replaced with a social system. Instead, they advocate radical redistribution of resources and state control of the economy. However, many socialists eventually abandon state ownership of resources and economics to pursue a vision of free love, food, and health services for all. While socialists generally favor a socialist society, their approach is not suitable for every country or situation. They often criticize capitalism in the process.
The main political theories assume that humanity is the primary entity, and define political institutions accordingly. In this regard, they are governed by ethical theories of human nature. Consequently, they must address such issues as individuality and the role of culture and race as a political entity. The debate over the nature of humanity has a profound effect on the practice of politics. Although most of these theories have strong roots in ethical concepts, many of them have their own peculiarities.
A fundamental aspect of political philosophy is its relationship to society. This field of study aims to apply ethical concepts to the social realm. It explores different forms of government and social existence and offers a standard by which to judge and evaluate existing institutions. In this way, political philosophy is critical of both traditional and modern institutions, and is the basis for a more progressive and humane world. So it is crucial to understand the history and philosophy of political thought before you embark on the process of governing the society.