If you haven’t ever asked yourself this question before, then you’re missing out on a wonderful opportunity to learn about deep philosophy. After all, philosophical questions are what make us human and make us unique. And while a list of deep philosophical questions can be lengthy, it’s worth the effort because it’s sure to provoke some thoughtful discussion. Below are a few of my favorites. I hope you enjoy them!
Do we have free will?
Several recent studies, including meta-analyses of 150 relevant studies, have supported the notion that we do not have free will. In addition, we do not have control over our actions unless we believe in an all-knowing deity. As a result, we are subject to externally-imposed causalities, such as punishment and praise. In cases where we believe in free will, there is a sense of agency in our actions.
Augustine is often cited as the most influential philosopher in Western philosophy. His early exposure to Neoplatonist thought influenced his mature thinking on the question of free will. However, his mature view on the subject was transformed by the theological views he adopted following his adult Christian conversion. This account is most famously reflected in his Confessions, which are a collection of his philosophies. It’s not clear whether the Christian tradition endorsed Augustine’s view of free will.
The debate over free will is often framed in terms of moral responsibility. The classical view of compatibilism, for example, argued that no one could be morally responsible in a deterministic world. In contrast, consequentialist justifications for punishment, such as penal reformation, claim that punishment can deter bad action and improve the offender. Nevertheless, the debate on free will continues to divide philosophers.
Neurobiologists have argued that free will does not exist. They say this because free will has been linked with dualism. The neurobiology of free will, however, is based on empirical evidence and plausible models of how the brain implements it. However, this debate is not yet conclusive. So, how do we know whether we have free will? And are we even aware of it? That’s an interesting question to ask.
Do we have necessity
Despite the common misconception that necessity is a physical requirement, Antonella argues that the principle of ontological necessity is a more grounded concept. She offers examples of metaphysical conceptual and logical necessity, including a valley in the mountains. Neither of these examples is merely logical, but they provide a useful framework for the debate. The philosophical question of whether necessity is physical is a complex one, and Antonella offers two possible solutions.
Both the present and the Langean accounts rely on different kinds of necessary relations in the world. The present account grounds logical necessity on natural law, while Lange’s account bases it on the laws of nature. The two kinds of necessity are associated with different facets of the world: the natural and formal facets. Natural laws are associated with maximally-invariant properties, while formal laws are associated with less-invariant properties. The differences between these two accounts are partly related to their respective goals.
Pap’s account of the “necessity of necessity” argument dates back to 1958, when he first introduced the concept. Lewis, however, denied necessity in any sense, saying that a necessary truth is independent of the physical world, space, or time. The argument has its limitations, however. Its basic idea is that necessity is not a guarantor of reason, and is therefore useless in both practical life and science.
The argument for necessity is a philosophical question, and the answer is “Yes.” Its logical formulation is a critical part of the debate over free will, because the issue of free will is largely about the realization of one actual present. This departure from strict necessity is slight. Hence, there is room for miracle ideas associated with “causa sui.”
Do we have contingency?
A business contingency plan lays out a strategy to handle unexpected events. It can include building up inventory and using non-union employees to cover for a loss of revenue. The NFL previously planned to pay owners even if a lockout forced the cancellation of games in 2011.
A good contingency plan includes steps to implement the plan and documentation. The first step is to research and brainstorm the plan’s key resources. It should rank these resources from most important to least important. The second step is to identify and prioritize risks. Meetings with employees, executives, and stakeholders can help the planning process. If necessary, companies should consider hiring an outside consultant to help them develop a plan. Ultimately, a good contingency plan can help you mitigate risk and ensure your business continues to run.
Next, contingency planning must address the basic assumptions of emergency situations. First, worst-case scenarios should be defined as the baseline for contingency planning. These scenarios should include building occupancy, environmental factors, and response parameters. For instance, a fire could strike a building or a tornado could threaten the business. Once these assumptions are determined, planning can begin. Once the baseline is set, it is time to define response parameters for emergency situations.
Do we have freedom to choose?
When do we have freedom of choice? What is its limit? We should be able to make decisions in a way that has limited consequences to others and the decision maker. We should also be able to hold multiple viewpoints about certain matters that are based on widely recognized moral beliefs and well-articulated principles. One example of this is the right to object to war. In several countries, this right is recognized. But we should be careful not to misunderstand the concept of freedom of choice.
Abortion is a particularly troubling concept. Compared to other forms of abortion, it is comparable to taking the life of a five-year-old child or terminating an unwanted pregnancy in its early stages. Many people would agree that neither practice is right, but the consequences of such a decision are immense. In some societies, a woman who chooses an abortion is essentially a murderer. But there are many other views and values involved in this decision.
Freedom of choice means the ability to choose one’s own course of action. It also means the ability to make decisions for oneself and without interference from others. It also means the ability to choose a lifestyle and not be shackled by someone else’s choices. It means we are not constrained by laws, institutions, or any other outside force. As long as our actions aren’t detrimental to others’ freedom of choice, then we have freedom.
Opponents of choice have tried to restrict access to information and services, including abortions. In the late 1970s, Congress banned medicaid from covering abortions, despite the fact that it fully funds other types of health care. This discriminatory policy was declared constitutional by the Supreme Court in 1980. In spite of these victories, many states have attempted to limit access to abortion information. Even now, the Supreme Court has upheld federal regulations that prohibit physicians from discussing abortion procedures with patients.
What is the nature of a god?
God is eternal. This implies that He can do whatever He wants, and He can do anything if His actions are consistent with His nature. God is omnibenevolent, and full of love. He wants the best for mankind, but this does not mean that He causes sin. Mankind can choose not to obey His will, or to act like a robot, as long as they do not harm the environment or hurt another person.
The most fundamental attribute of God is holiness. Holy means set apart. God is clearly separate from everything that He created. All other aspects of God’s nature are based on this holiness. In Revelation 4:8, four living creatures are seen singing to God. God is a holy being, and the angels worship Him in turn. But this holiness does not mean that God is unapproachable – he can also come as an angel of light.
God reveals his character through creation and the Holy Spirit. Various manifestations of God reveal the mysteries that were previously hidden to us. God may even speak to us anthropomorphically, which means “like a human” and uses human terms. Nevertheless, God is the same, and his attributes are not changed. He is the same, as he always has been and will be. It is not possible to learn everything about God from nature alone, but we can learn a great deal from God’s written Word.
A triune God is beyond our comprehension. God is infinite, eternal, and perfect. It is also light, spirit, and love. And He is the creator of all things. But God is not human – he is a spirit! The definition of a god is the one who possesses all of these qualities. God is the essence of all things. The triune nature of God is beyond the scope of human understanding, but it is the only way to know God.