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Understanding Political Philosophy

The goal of political philosophy is to establish an order of human society in which individuals, groups, and nations all have a similar set of values and goals. Political groups possess the means to use coercive means in order to implement their goals. But these means are not without their limitations. If you want to understand political philosophy, it is important to know how political groups have developed the means to achieve their goals. Listed below are the key components of political philosophy.


Socrates’ political philosophy begins by wondering how cities came into being. He argues that cities came into being independently of ethical or ethically-motivated concerns. Instead, cities are born to make money and immediately need to defend themselves in war. That means that cities can choose to engage in offensive wars for the sake of economic gain. Socrates then provides numerous examples of why individual judgments are not infallible and therefore cannot be trusted.

The quest for wisdom challenges leaders, experts, and political experts alike, and it is ultimately a quest for truth and justice. Socrates’ political philosophy begins with his understanding of the nature of truth and justice, and ends with his assessment of his attachment to the democratic system in Athenian society. Ultimately, this philosophical work has a profound impact on all our lives. And it’s well worth reading. It’s time you delve deeper into Socrates’ political philosophy.

Socrates’ political philosophy has been described as incredibly paradoxical, and his beliefs seem to contradict common sense. His stance on wrongdoing is particularly difficult to reconcile with the idea that people are free to act however they chose. In reality, he believed that people were only wrong because they didn’t know any better. Rather than a societal framework that allows for a more complex view of morality, Socrates urged people to focus on their own self-development and personal relationships.


Thomas Hobbes is an English philosopher and historian. His main works include the Human Nature, De Corpore Politico, Leviathan, and Dialogue between a philosopher and student about common law in England. In his political philosophy, Hobbes believes that the government should have the power to control citizens in their own interests. This is the most common form of government, and it is the most effective. But how can you understand Hobbes’ political philosophy?

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The first chapter of The Wealth of Nations argues that the sovereign is in a position to judge the means of survival and well-being of many people. The sovereign may be driven by selfish passions, but that does not make him immune. While he admits that the sovereign might act iniquitously, Hobbes insists that it is imprudent to do so. This is because when the subjects are frightened of the sovereignty, they lose their obligations to obey.

Similarly, in the State of Nature, Thomas Hobbes argues that the human being is endowed with the right to defend and preserve himself. This right is akin to the “right to all things” that Hobbes calls the “right to nature”. This assumption is based on the principle of practical rationality, which makes it plausible to believe that almost anything can be defended as essential to preserving life.


In his Political Philosophy, Mencius identifies four basic characteristics of human nature. He also rejects the idea of “self,” “soul,” and “humanness.” Instead, he sees the human as a product of a five-phase correlation of qi, and recognizes that there are four “propensities” in the qi that produce the human. These four characteristics are: compassion, generosity, shame, and kinship.

The first principle of Mencius’ political philosophy relates to the purpose of politics. In a participatory society, a citizen’s vote can solve a policy question, but it does not necessarily lead to the correct outcome. Confucius says that a government should be benevolent. To create this benevolent government, people must work together to establish a social order that encourages prosperity for all.

Mencius also believes in benevolent government. His philosophy stresses the importance of reducing taxation and punishment. He also emphasizes the importance of virtue and ritual. These should be complementary to the rule of law. In other words, a benevolent ruler would care for the needs of four groups: widows, young children without fathers, and elderly people. A wise ruler would be one who follows the advice of Confucius and aims to create a peaceful society.

In terms of political philosophy, Mencius was the most important Confucian philosopher. Meng Ke, his birth name, was in a state called Zou. Zoucheng, where Meng Ke was born, is now a county-level city in Shandong Province, thirty kilometers south of Confucius’ birthplace in Qufu. The name Meng Ke is a common Chinese name, and Meng Kiao was his mother’s name.

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Karl Marx

If you’ve ever wondered how to put Karl Marx’s political philosophy into easy to understand terms, read on for the basics. Marx argued that capitalism contains inherent seeds of destruction. Capitalism, in his view, is a system where the upper class exploits and alienates the working class. Workers eventually rebel and take control of the means of production. Marx argued that it is inevitable that capitalism will end and the working class will become the proletariat, or the class that rules.

One concept associated with Marx’s work and intellectual tradition is alienation. Marx claimed that it is a distinct social ill, where the original subject is separated from the object. However, he later rejected this view, and affirmed that human nature consists of mutable and variable aspects. Aristotle, on the other hand, asserted that “human nature is not absolute”.

Classical marxism is a form of Socialism that provides the intellectual foundation for Communism. It arose in nineteenth century Europe as a reaction to the rise of capitalism. Marx’s work reflects a number of thinkers, including Friedrich Engels, Karl David Hume, and Ludwig von Mises. Throughout his career, Marx wrote a number of essays and books in which he developed his own ideas through fierce critical attacks on those he considered better known or more established than himself.

John Dewey

John Dewey’s political philosophy is characterized by its unstructured writings that are dispersed throughout various contexts over a long period of time. As a social critic, he opposed a political system that reduced people to numerics, but supported the concept of the’social organism’ in its broadest sense. This approach was especially prescient in the era of social media.

A major goal of Dewey’s political philosophy is to promote civic dialogue. He sought to create a ‘Great Community’ rather than a “War of Individual Interests.” Ultimately, he argued that democracy should serve the needs of all citizens, not only the rich. Therefore, every sovereign citizen is an important embodiment of a collective will. Dewey’s political philosophy is essential reading for all citizens.

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The public is the basis of democracy, and the role of experts in decision-making is vital. However, Dewey argues that the role of experts is unsatisfactory. Experts may be well-intentioned, but they have their own biases and consequences. Therefore, Dewey believes that an extensive form of democracy is required for social action. Despite this, he does not believe in experts, citing evidence that people do not always make good choices.

After being marginalized, Richard Rorty re-engaged in John Dewey. His historical-minded questioning of epistemological foundations and aspiration for a God’s-eye point of view acted as fertile ground for his own project. However, Rorty’s skeptical postmodern liberal ironism glossed over the ethical and political theory that Dewey developed in the first place. Rorty made little of Dewey’s naturalistic confidence in democracy and scientific method.

Antonio Gramsci

If you’re unfamiliar with Antonio Gramsci’s political philosophy, you should start by understanding the role of intellectuals in the life of the working class. While he wrote about a revolutionary party, this is not the same as the academics who sit in ivory towers. In fact, Gramsci’s definition of an intellectual is much more extensive. Here are three examples of how intellectuals are important in the life of a working class.

First, he argued that political activity is necessary for the development of the public sphere. He also believed that civil society consists of citizens and their families. Rather than just addressing individual problems in the public sphere, he focused on the larger social context. Moreover, he considered socialism to be a natural extension of the class structure, which is the basis of modern capitalism.

The role of intellectuals is also crucial for the development of a democracy. In Gramsci’s view, the intellectuals are critical because they enact class ideology beyond the economic interests of the ruling class. He also believed that lay people are intellectual, but he disagreed with the notion that every individual is an intellectual. And that is why it is essential to define who is an intellectual. This is especially true of people who have intellectual backgrounds, which are often excluded from participation in political life.