The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas, the great theologian, defended the doctrine that all existence is a product of an analogical process. He outlined three types of analogy, each implying some remote resemblance between two objects. In general, the latter two kinds of analogy are not mutually exclusive. In other words, you can have a similar thing without recognizing its real existence.


Thomas Aquinas’ first three arguments for the existence of God are cosmological in nature. They begin with a general truth about the nature of the universe and move on to identify the ultimate creative force as God. In addition, Thomas Aquinas introduces the concept of perfect contemplation. Such contemplation is the result of seeing God in the afterlife. Aquinas also made the distinction between perfect and imperfect contemplation, which was introduced by Aristotle.

Thomas Aquinas was a great theologian who held that God was the author of natural law. This natural law was created by God and endowed with a morality and political code. It guides human beings towards a natural perfection and is authored by God. Because of this, human subjugation to God’s eternal law is always concomitant with his awareness of the law binding him.

Aquinas’s ideas and arguments against the aristocracy of Aristotle were controversial and had a great impact on Western thought. The great Father of the Western Church, St. Augustine, advocated the use of empirical knowledge to discern truth. In the 13th century, major works of Aristotle were translated into Latin and accompanied by Averroes’ commentaries. This restored the importance of empirical knowledge and led to the rise of the Averroist school of thought.


Theologian of philosophy Thomas Aquinas held that God has provided the laws of nature and reason to man, but that these cannot be understood without divine help. God moves the human intellect from time to time, allowing it to arrive at important conclusions. The theologian was a strong empiricist, and his ideas have greatly influenced Aristotelian philosophy. The philosophy of Thomas Aquinas can be divided into two distinct categories: empiricist and Aristotelian.

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Aquinas also argued that human reason has an intrinsic value, and the human soul is a part of that nature. Moreover, Aquinas viewed sacred doctrine as a science, with written scripture and the traditions of the Catholic Church at its heart. Furthermore, God’s self-revelation throughout history is the raw material of theology. Reason and faith are the tools used in processing the doctrines of God, as he is the source of our knowledge.

Aquinas’ philosophical theology is highly complex and difficult to summarize, so a basic outline is necessary. His main themes are exploring the nature of God, as well as the nature of faith, and defending Christian doctrine. In his Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas argues that philosophical reasoning is a source of divine truth and exoneration for Christian doctrine. Aquinas also sees philosophy as a tool for theology, and argues that God is a part of human reason.

Despite the controversy surrounding Aquinas’ writings, they are important to understand. His main works are De ente et essentia (On Being and Essence), Impugnantes of God and Religion, and Theology of Philosophy: The Legacy of Thomas Aquinas

Natural law theory

In the Philosophy of Aquinas, the good is the most fundamental thing. According to Aquinas, right actions come after the good, so that we can reason from principles about good to guidelines for how to pursue it. It is this conception of good that makes Aquinas’ theory of natural law so appealing. The theory also explains why good is the most important thing, and how it can be realized.

According to Aquinas, there are four kinds of laws. These are natural law, eternal law, and divine law. Despite the fact that these are not necessarily mutually exclusive, divine law reaches humans through revelation. In fact, it is the latter kind of law that is the most pervasive in human society. Aquinas also claims that the human mind is the source of all morality.

Natural law theorizing has many origins. It first came into prominence with Hugo Grotius’ Prolegomena to De Jure belli ac pacis (1625). In Aristotle’s time, it was the common sense of practical wisdom that guided human behavior, despite the absence of general rules and principles. Although Grotius’s theory has been associated with the natural law tradition, it differs from the Aristotean position in that it is non-paradigmatic.

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Nemeth also argues that natural law theorists should recognize the distinction between Aquinas and Cicero. While both authors are concerned with natural law, they often ignore their differences. Moreover, they focus on the similarities and downplay the differences between Aquinas and Cicero. So, it is unclear which one should be preferred. If we are to make decisions based on natural law, we must consider both.

Speculative philosophy

The speculative philosophy of Thomas Aquinas was founded on three basic principles. They are God, being, and its principles, and immaterial subsistences. The three aspects of philosophy are all related to science and metaphysics. Speculative wisdom aims to understand the first principle, the separation of intellectual substances, and the most basic and universal characteristics of things. Listed below are the basic principles of speculative philosophy.

The speculative philosophical wisdom of Aquinas is properly known as metaphysics. While Aristotle called it First Philosophy, Aquinas argues that metaphysics should be about being as being, or ens commune. This is an intelligible formality. Aquinas’s speculative philosophy was influenced by Plato and Aristotle.

The first basic principle of speculative philosophy is that the object of the speculative power derives its characteristic from the power of the intellect and the habit of science. Ultimately, the object of speculative power is immaterial and necessary. Science deals with these immaterial matters. However, it does not mean that the speculative sciences are unimportant. However, if Aquinas’s speculative philosophy is not followed by modern philosophers, it will remain irrelevant.

The speculative philosophy of Aquinas is divided into two sub-subfields: general metaphysics and special metaphysics. In general, speculative philosophy deals with questions about being. Various aspects of the subject include concepts of property, existence, and change. It also focuses on the nature of space and mind. For example, what is the nature of a human’s mind?

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Moreover, Aquinas’ philosophy focuses on a distinction between material and non-material objects. While a physical object is purely material, the properties of its objects will be different. A metaphysician must know the difference between being and materiality. Hence, speculative philosophy requires a distinction between these two. But, it does not mean that there is no material object that exists.


Thomas Aquinas’s metaethics is closely related to the ideas of Aristotle. In his Summa theologia, the Dominican philosopher aims to formulate a system that addresses all questions. He considers Aristotle “The Philosopher” to be on the same level as the Bible and reveres him as such. In the philosophy of Aquinas, the concept of ‘natural’ was radically altered, and the ideas of Aristotle were brought to life.

The main argument of Aquinas’ ethics against war and killing is flawed. Although the act of killing a person is intrinsically wrong, there is room for war and the death penalty. Nevertheless, Aquinas would accept this act if it came before the death of the foetus. However, he would reject it if the person had committed the crime. In this case, it would be a sin against justice if the person had killed someone.

The central point of Aquinas’ philosophy is that ethics is grounded in natural moral knowledge. All humans have an innate knowledge of natural law (synderesis) that becomes actualized in a particular situation. However, reason is the key to realising this natural law. The use of reason to act is necessary for inclinations to obey the law, and without it, the natural good is not pursued.

The meta-ethical views of Aquinas provide a crucial background for understanding the unique synthesis of Christian teaching with Aristotelian philosophy. This perspective provides a rich and ideal context for understanding moral philosophy and virtue. As a result, the meta-ethical views of Aquinas yield a comprehensive understanding of the moral life. So, Aquinas’s ethics and moral teaching are not separate, but complementary.

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