Philosophers have long debated the subject of human nature. The debates have included the works of Hobbes, Aristotle, and Nietzsche, although Hobbes’s views on the subject are of special interest here. Let us now examine the contributions of each to the discussion. This will allow us to draw some conclusions and formulate our own positions. We will also discuss the pitfalls of both of these school’s perspectives.
‘Human nature’ in Hobbes’ philosophy refers to the basic premise of our existence. As a species, we are all born equal, and as such, we should not judge one another’s actions by our own values. Hobbes argued that all men are born equal and thus, their actions should be regarded as the same. But in practice, we see that these principles do not apply to all individuals.
The philosopher was very clear that human nature is the source of conflict, and therefore, war is inevitable. According to Hobbes, war is the result of this conflict. War is not the only cause of human conflict, however. Hobbes claimed that there are three primary causes of war: personal gain, safety, and glory. He also believed that humans are capable of achieving all three at once. While this may seem a rather extreme concept, it is the underlying premise of Hobbes’ philosophy.
In Hobbes’ philosophy of human nature, the state of nature is good to the extent that we are able to fulfill our desires. When we want something, we will do whatever is necessary to fulfill that desire. Hobbes argues that our instincts for survival will lead us to sacrifice our rights in order to obtain that wish. But we are also able to override our passions when it comes to obeying a higher authority.
The prevailing view at the time was that women are born inferior and unfree to men. Hobbes’ philosophy of human nature explicitly argued that women can be sovereign and equal. This is a radical departure from the view of many people of his time, including the patriarchal Sir Robert Filmer. Instead, Hobbes rejected patriarchalism as a fundamental principle of society. As a result, he advocated political society.
In defending the absolutism of his theory, Hobbes rejected the concept of God as an immaterial entity. Moreover, Hobbes rejected the notion of the soul. In other words, he denied that there is a soul, separate from the body, or other incorporeal entities. He considered human beings to be machines, with their emotions and actions governed by physical laws. However, these beliefs are not compatible with his philosophy.
In his theory of the nature of human society, Hobbes argued that the rebellion of Parliament while Charles I was king was illegitimate. This theory, however, later gained traction. After publishing Leviathan, Hobbes returned to England. He presented himself before the Council of State. He also wrote the essays ‘De corpore’ and ‘De homine’. The latter is a more detailed analysis of the third part of his scheme.
Assuming that Hobbes’ theory of nature is true, it is necessary to consider the nature of government. The ideal government, according to Hobbes, must be a common power. This common power would protect people from outside enemies and keep men united. So, what is the best way to govern society? To do so, we need a common power. We must protect the common good through a strong and efficient government.
Hobbes’ philosophy of human nature was influential for politics. While his work is often regarded as misanthropic, it has influenced political thought. While critics dismissed the conclusions of Hobbes within his framework, they accepted the notion of state of nature. Therefore, political cynics may find it difficult to defend Hobbes’ views. To conclude, Hobbes’ philosophy of human nature is an important part of the American political system.
Another important topic in Hobbes’ philosophy of human nature is freedom. He argued that humans have the right to live, to kill, and to own property. As long as they are not exploited, the state would have sufficient power to protect citizens. Hobbes’ ideas about freedom would also be beneficial for a consumer society. But the premise that Hobbes laid out here is still valid: freedom is a necessary condition for human existence, and it is this freedom that allows us to live.
The concept of freedom in Hobbes’ philosophy of human nature also raises many interesting questions. For example, it questions whether it is possible for a group of people to live in a society where sovereign and state apparatus are essentially artificial. As long as reciprocity is not failing, the existence of state apparatus is unnecessary. In addition, Hobbes relies on epistemological assumptions about human behavior that are factual because they are true. The phenomenological view of trust is much more plausible in sociality.
This comprehensive survey of Aristotle’s Philosophy of Human Nature includes essays on his biophysical, ethical, and metaphysical works. Editors Geert Keil and Nora Kreft focus on different topics in Aristotle’s philosophy. Professor Keil is a philosophy professor at Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin and co-editor of Vagueness and Law. Kreft specializes in ancient philosophy and moral psychology.
Aristotle posits that the psyche is the first actuality of any living being. This part of the soul is rational and spirited. The other part contains animal-like passions. Both are part of the soul, but psyche is distinct from thumos. Rationality is the best way to live a life. Aristotle views philosophers as the highest kind of human.
Humans have a tendency to abstract concepts. Aristotle calls these concepts “continuous natures” and explains them as beings that generate and self-preserve. The goal of understanding nature is to understand “how a being manifests itself by its nature” and count as a correct explanation only if it leads to the knowledge of beings. But it can’t help but raise questions about how we live and how we should approach the world.
While the definition of human nature differs from modern philosophical works, the core principles of Aristotle’s Philosophy of Human Nature are the same. In addition to addressing the questions of what constitutes “morality,” Aristotle also stresses the idea of habituation and the ability to live according to nature. While many modern philosophers advocate the use of nature to guide human decision-making, Pyrrhonism encourages the use of nature as a way to live.
Aristotle’s philosophy of human being also discusses the importance of the individual’s intellect. He believes that human intellect is the most important part of the human psyche and should be nurtured above all else. Intellectual growth and learning are essential for happiness and a fulfilling life. It’s not easy to understand how Aristotle thought about the nature of human beings, but understanding the basic principles of the subject of action and behavior is essential for human flourishing.
The capacity of reason is an essential component of our ability to reason. Aristotle’s view of the human capacity to reason makes it unique from other animals. Similarly, women are inferior, because their inherent hysteria prevents them from taking part in political life. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish between speech and reason. This distinction is essential in understanding the role of human reason. So, why is this distinction important?
The philosopher emphasized the power of logic and observation. Observations were carefully recorded and compared to the ideas presented in his books. Aristotle’s work is an encyclopedic work, and his writings have been the basis for countless commentaries and translations throughout history. Despite the condensed nature of Aristotle’s philosophy of human nature, most of his works are preserved in fragments. In addition to his philosophy of human nature, he wrote a general introduction to philosophy, a critique of Plato’s theory of forms, and a number of philosophical dialogues. Some of his recorded lectures cover all areas of philosophy. Handwritten copies of Aristotle’s work circulated in the Near East, northern Africa, and southern Europe.
While Aristotle’s philosophy of human life is rooted in observation and the scientific method, he also recognized that knowledge can be gained from other means than empirical research. His philosophy of human nature also teaches us that we must aim for excellence if we want to attain eudaimonia, or happiness. He taught his students to seek excellence in order to reach this state. The works of Aristotle’s philosophy of human nature have influenced ancient and medieval thought and inspire philosophers to this day.
The concept of human nature is problematic for evolutionary biologists because of its lack of explanatory power. This is particularly true if human nature is defined in terms of causal mechanisms rather than surface-level properties. While these notions can sometimes be helpful to understand how human nature works, they do not address the fundamental nature of human beings. For instance, in the case of Aristotle, the “essence” of human nature may include the cognitive mechanisms that underpin linguistic behaviour.
Aristotle was employed by Philip of Macedonia and served as a tutor to Alexander the Great. Thus, his philosophy of human nature was directly related to the rise of a major power. So, what are some of the most influential ideas of Aristotle’s philosophy of human nature? Consider the following. They will make you a better philosopher! Aristotle’s philosophy of human nature is based on a long-established tradition and is the most accessible and useful.