Philosophical realism is a philosophical position on the nature of reality. It is a position that is taken toward other subject matters, such as a subject’s appearance. It holds that a certain kind of thing has a mind-independent existence. Thus, a real object is more than just an appearance. In a wider context, philosophical realism is a stance taken towards other forms of idealism.
George Santayana’s philosophy of realism
In his book The Life of Reason, George Santayana aims to give us a synoptic view of the nature of human thought. His philosophy is based on the concept of essence, a universal object of thought that encompasses all thought. Nevertheless, the underlying belief in matter is based on our animal faith. As such, Santayana is a critic of materialism. However, his philosophy of realism is not devoid of morals.
Several books on George Santayana have been published, including People and Places by Daniel M. Cory, Santayana’s Autobiography by Irwin Edman, and Philosophy of Santayana, edited by John and Shirley Lachs. Santayana’s works have been translated into English and Spanish. His works are published in several editions, including the 1938 edition, which is titled “The Philosophy of Realism.”
One of the most important aspects of this philosophy is that it is about the individual. While it is true that the state protects the individual and enables them to flourish, the aim is to celebrate life. In contrast to Aristotle, Santayana sees life as an adventure that is best lived in the moment. He believes in achieving the goal of life through a series of actions that are consistent with time and place.
In 1892, Santayana experienced a metanoia, which is the Greek word for change of heart. He switched his life from an academic existence to an imaginative celebration of life. In a letter to a friend, he explained that he would rather beg instead of become an academic. In his mind, the academic lifestyle was incompatible with his intellectual freedom. Santayana chose the path that allowed him to fully enjoy life.
At the turn of the century, George Santayana’s interests turned toward philosophical inquiries. However, he never gave up poetry. His most affecting poetry was inspired by trench warfare in World War I. He also wrote about the casualties of the war and the darkest hour. In addition to writing his own poems, he often recited long fragments of others’ poetry. This is one of the main reasons why Santayana’s philosophy of realism is regarded as so profound.
George Santayana’s ‘logical positivism’
Known as the father of Classical American Philosophy, George Santayana earned his Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1889 and became a prominent figure there. His students included many prominent individuals, including Max Eastman, Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson, and poets. His logical positivism shaped the philosophy of modernity. Santayana also became an important figure in the life of the university where he taught, inspiring a generation of thinkers to come to the same conclusions.
As a Catholic and Hispanic, George Santayana was critical of American life, especially its adherence to past traditions and obligations. He held that religion and nationality were inextricably linked and that neither is superior or inferior. These were both material conditions of human existence, which were not necessarily conducive to individual freedom. Santayana’s ‘logical positivism’ aims to change these beliefs by removing cultural barriers and promoting individual freedom.
Philosophically, this perspective emphasizes the importance of nature and the existence of matter. The very fact that matter is the cause of all conflict and imperfection is the natural foundation of everything that is. For this reason, Santayana’s ‘logical positivism’ has become a widely accepted philosophical theory. However, this perspective does not reflect the views of every philosopher. Although Santayana espoused’resistance’, he also defended human freedom.
In spite of his philosophical differences, he was optimistic about the youthful American soul. In a lecture entitled ‘The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy, he stated that the American Will inhabits the skyscraper and the Intellect inhabits the colonial mansion. He also argued that wisdom and energy will combine into a coherent rich tradition in the future. The last puritan (1936) and ‘The First Puritan’ (1935) were a few of his many literary works.
This ‘logical positivism’ is based on Santayana’s ‘pragmatic’ view of the world and his views on freedom, human rights, and the human body. While Santayana may be controversial, the book has become a highly popular classic among critics and readers. Despite its popularity, Santayana’s ‘rational positivism’ has also come under fire.
George Santayana’s ‘critical realism’
‘Critical Realism’ is a philosophical term used by George Santayana to define a philosophy in which the individual is valued and privileged over the collective. During the turn of the century, Santayana became an influential figure in the Classical American Philosophy and was considered a tramp of the intellect. Despite this, Santayana did not abandon his love for poetry and was often inspired by the trench warfare and casualties of World War I, his darkest hour. He also recited long fragments of other poets when he was near death.
Critics of critical realism differ on the metaphysical questions they address. Santayana is a metaphysical monist, while Sellars views mental functions as the responses of biological organisms to stimuli. Lovejoy, on the other hand, argues that only the mind can create thoughts and sensations, and that the mind means objects. This is the fundamental difference between direct and critical realism.
Critical Realism has several communities. Among its leading contributors are Roy Bhaskar and George Santayana. Santayana himself was a critic of Positivism and a pioneer of ‘critical realism’. According to his theory, something is real if it causes visible consequences and is causally efficacious. In practice, this means that critical realism advocates use a pragmatic theory of truth, and those who reject it adhere to the correspondence theory.
The concept of ‘essence’ is an important one in Critical Realism. According to Santayana, objects of knowledge can be either existing substances or their essences. The former can be proved independently, while the latter cannot. In addition to the above-mentioned principles, Santayana challenges the prevailing structures in English and American philosophy. A more practical application of ‘critical realism’ would be to develop a philosophy of nature that recognizes that all things are inherently expressive.
Critical Realism” is an important concept in philosophy. Its origins date to the late nineteenth century, when the American philosopher Roy Wood Sellars was upset with the incapacity of economic science to deal with issues of economic justice. As such, he saw a need for a realism that could deal with ethical issues and individual agency. In fact, Santayana is not an early critic of critical realism, but rather a precursor to the critical realism movement.
George Santayana’s idealism
Although his intellectual interests centered on philosophical inquiries in the early twentieth century, George Santayana never abandoned his literary works. Some of his best work came during World War I, when he was inspired by trench warfare and the casualties. Other works of poetry include the poetic parody of The Aeneid, “A Short History of the Class of ’82” and “Lines on Leaving the Bedford St. Schoolhouse.” Despite his interests in philosophy and religion, much of his literary life was devoted to poetry.
George Santayana’s philosophy focuses on the nature of existence, which he considers the primary cause of all phenomena. This is because matter is the origin of all thought, and that thought, like matter, is a product of material organization. Rather than relying on human reason and free will to determine the course of history, he believed that dark powers determine events and that the human mind has no power to change nature.
In addition to his book The Life of Reason, Santayana’s other works are widely available, including his biography, People and Places. Santayana’s philosophy was influenced by both the Roman Catholic church and the American pragmatism of James. His writings are widely read and remain one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Among his most famous quotes is “Those who fail to remember the past are doomed to repeat it.”
Although he wrote his dissertation in his mother’s Roxbury home, Santayana cultivated his intellectual curiosity and developed a keen interest in poetry. After graduating from Latin School, he entered Harvard College and completed his B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in 1884 and 1889. While at Harvard, he also spent the summer months of 1889 and 1890 studying in Germany on a Walker Fellowship. He was also active socially during his Harvard years.
The intellectual tramp in Santayana’s life was a common theme. While he was not isolated within a particular ideology, he was devoted to spiritual disciplines. These disciplines often seem irresponsible to philosophers. They hope to command representative or privileged authority over their subjects. As a result, they seem irresponsible. But what they do not realize is that this approach does not work.